Cancer Treatment Available Abroad At Affordable Cost –Cancer Treatment

Cancer is one of the most serious diseases that can afflict a person. With over 200 different types of cancer that can occur within the human body, there are numerous treatment options available. Patients who decide to go abroad for cancer treatment often have more considerations to deal with than most other types of treatments.

Some of the most common cancer treatments that can be found in India include : –

Bone Marrow Transplant : – Bone marrow is a spongy tissue found inside bones. The bone marrow in the breast bone, skull, hips, ribs and spine contains stem cells that produce the body’s blood cells.

Brachytherapy : – Brachytherapy treatment in India is radiation that is given inside the patient, as close to the cancer as possible. The radiation is delivered inside the body with radioactive isotopes (chemical elements), inside delivery devices such as wires, seeds, or rods. These devices are called implants.

Breast Cancer Treatment : – The term breast cancer refers to a malignant tumor that has developed from cells in the breast. The breast is composed of two main types of tissues: glandular tissues and stromal (supporting) tissues.

Chemotherapy Treatment : – Chemotherapy is a general term for treatments that use chemical agents (drugs) to kill cancer cells. Many different kinds of drugs are used, either alone or in combination, to treat different cancers.

IMRT : – Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a powerful cancer-fighting technology. Annually, Mayo Clinic radiation oncologists treat more than 200 patients using IMRT.

Lung Cancer Treatment : – Lung cancer starts in the cells of the lung .The lungs are in the chest on either side of the heart. The right lung has 3components or lobes and the left lung 2 lobes. Air is inhaled through the nose and throat and flows past the voice box (larynx) into the windpipe (Trachea).

Prostate Cancer Treatment in India : – Prostate cancer is the leading malignancy in men over the age of 50. It is due to the abnormal proliferation of prostatic tissue cells. It is often a slow-growing cancer and remains localized at first. Later, it may extend as it spreads to nearby tissues and organs and then metastasizes to other more distant organs (lymph nodes, bones, lungs, etc.) via the bloodstream and the lymphatic system.

Radiation Therapy : – Tumors are made up of cells that are reproducing at abnormally high rates. Radiation therapy specifically acts against cells that are reproducing rapidly. Normal cells are programmed to stop reproducing (or dividing) when they come into contact with other cells.

Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy : – Stereotactic radiosurgery is a highly precise form of radiation therapy used primarily to treat tumors and other abnormalities of the brain. Despite its name, stereotactic radiosurgery is a non-surgical procedure that uses highly focused x-rays to treat certain types of tumors, inoperable lesions and as a post-operative treatment to eliminate any leftover tumor tissue or to obliterate abnormal blood vessels in congenital arteriovernous malformations.

The aim of cancer treatment is to completely remove cancerous tissue from the patient without causing significant damage to the rest of the body. Cancer occurs when cancerous cells in the body multiply uncontrollably and accumulate in tumorous masses.

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Prostate Cancer Research with Transgenic Mouse Model

Prostate cancer is the cancer developed in the male reproductive system. The cancer cells can spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, such as the bones and lymph nodes. According to the past statistics, prostate cancer will likely claim more than thirty thousand lives of men in the United States each year, and some more men will be diagnosed with the disease. To date, it is believed that the primary risk factors are obesity, age and family history, but a comprehensive understanding of the causes of prostate cancer remains elusive.

Progress towards the investigation of prostate cancer has been slow due to the lack of suitable animal models that can adequately reproduce the spectrum of benign, latent, aggressive, and metastatic forms of the human diseases, helping studying the spectrum of this uniquely human disease. Although naturally occurring prostatic disease has been reported in some animal’s species, such as canine and rodent animals, these animals still fail to provide the appropriate models to adequately study the molecular mechanisms related to the early development and progression of human prostate cancer.

Researchers have started a research program to establish transgenic mouse model for prostate cancer by using a prostate-specific transgenic expression system that has been developed in their laboratories based on the rat probasin (rPB)-encoding gene. To develop an animal model for prostate cancer, they generate several lines of transgenic mice by using the prostate-specific rat probasin promoter to drive expression of the simian virus 40 large tumor antigencoding region. According to their observation, mice express high levels of the transgene and display progressive forms of prostatic disease that histologically resemble human prostate cancer. And prostate tumors have been successfully detected in the mice prostate as early as 10 weeks of age. The immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissue has demonstrated that dorsolateral prostate-specific secretory proteins are confined to well differentiate ductal epithelial cells adjacent to, or within tumor mass. What’s more, the prostate tumors in the mice also display elevated levels of nuclear p53 and a decreased heterogeneous pattern of androgen-receptor expression, as observed in advanced human prostate cancer.

The simian virus 40 (SV40) early-region tumor antigens with the ability to induce transformation in vivo have also been used to facilitate this study. The SV40 large tumor T antigen acts as an oncoprote in through interactions with the retinoblastoma and p53 tumor-suppressor gene products, and the small tantigen interacts with a protein phosphatase. They have been used successfully in transgenic mice to induce a transformed state in a variety of systems, including pancreas, mammary gland, and others. It is believed that the directly expressing SV40 tumor antigen in the prostate epithelium of transgenic mice may provide a better mouse model for the development and progression of prostate cancer.

According to their recent study, the rPB gene encodes an androgen- and zinc-regulated protein specific to the dorsolateral epithelium (6-8) and isolation of the rPB gene has facilitated identification of cis-acting androgen-response regions within the 5′ flanking region. The ability of the prostate-specific rPB gene promoter to target heterologous genes specifically to the prostate in transgenic mice has been demonstrated. The minimal rPB promoter is specifically regulated by androgens in vivo with the ability to target developmentally and hormonally regulated expression of a heterologous gene specifically to the prostate in transgenic mice. And it has been used to target expression of the SV40 early-region genes specifically to the prostate of transgenic mice.

Nowadays, the establishment of breeding lines of transgenic mice provides an animal model system to study the molecular basis of transformation of normal prostatic cells and the factors influencing the progression to metastatic prostate cancer. The ability to induce prostatic disease in a transgenic mouse provides an animal model system to better study prostate cancer and the treatment and prevention of prostate cancer. By the way, the US-based bio-tech service company Creative Animodel, as a professional animal model service supplier, can help develop high quality transgenic mouse models for research use.

Source : Prostate Cancer Treatment in India